NATURALISM – Reasoning that a conclusion ‘Ought’ to be true based on the way the world ‘Is.’ A common example of naturalism is arguing that dairy is bad for people because it is not natural for humans to eat it. This is…

0 Comments / 18 View / April 9, 2015



MORALISM – Inferring a conclusion ‘Is’ based on the way the world ‘Ought’ to be.  This is the opposite of the naturalistic fallacy. Naturalism reasons that war is okay because human beings have a natural proclivity towards violence. Moralism reasons that human beings cannot have…

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ENTERTAINMENT – Excusing fallacies that are committed when they are delivered as entertainment.  When entertainment, comedy, and satire are used to persuade people, those arguments become exposed to logical scrutiny. Excusing the source from logic because it is supposed to be…

0 Comments / 6 View / April 9, 2015

middle ground


MIDDLE GROUND – Reasoning that an average of, or a compromise amongst, multiple opinions is correct.  Often times, the average opinion from a large number of people is close to the reality. Experiments show that this is true when the participants are…

0 Comments / 6 View / April 9, 2015



BANDWAGON – Believing a claim is true because of popularity.  The masses are not always correct. Bandwagon can be triggered by following what a friend says, hysteria, hype, ignorance, celebrity endorsements, and so on. This error can be seen with fad…

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APPEAL TO AUTHORITY – Misplacing or misusing a source of authority in an argument.  ​There are a few varieties of the Appeal to Authority fallacy. We should remember that quoting authorities is not always a fallacy. One way this is an…

2 Comments / 9 View / April 9, 2015



GENETIC FALLACY- Accepting or rejecting an argument based on its source. ​ Reputable sources can sometimes be wrong and questionable sources can sometimes be right. The origin of a claim or argument has no bearing on its truth value. This is…

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relative privation


RELATIVE PRIVATION – Discrediting an argument by pointing out a worse, unrelated problem. “I cried because I had no shoes. Then I met a man who had no feet.” This has been said several different ways and credited to many…

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APPEAL TO CONSEQUENCES – Arriving to a conclusion based on consequences instead of evidence.  There are four main types of this argument: NEGATIVE: (1) Q is true because if we do not accept Q as being true, N would occur;…

0 Comments / 48 View / April 9, 2015



NOVELTY – Reasoning that new ideas are better because they are progressive. Consider the following argument, by novelty: (1) Atheism is a modern idea (2) Religion is antiquated Therefore: (3) Atheism must be better than religion Alternatively, one could argue,…

0 Comments / 17 View / April 9, 2015