cum hoc

CUM HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC

CUM HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC – Reasoning that when two events happen at the same time, there must be a causal relationship.  This is very closely related to the Post Hoc fallacy. Being a police officer in Clarkstown, NY is a nice gig….

0 Comments / 22 View / April 9, 2015

post hoc

POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC

POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC – Reasoning that because one event occurred first it must have caused a later event.  This is one type of false causation, and is related to Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc. The Post Hoc fallacy can…

1 Comment / 18 View / April 9, 2015

broken window

BROKEN WINDOW

BROKEN WINDOW – Mistaking destruction as a net-benefit to society (while ignoring opportunity costs).  A parable: Joe the Plummer is relaxing at home when he hears a crashing sound. He rushes downstairs to find a baseball through his window. His…

0 Comments / 64 View / April 9, 2015

sunk costs

SUNK COSTS

SUNK COSTS – Including past costs in future decision making.  Your mom was right, don’t cry over spilt milk. It is amusing how some expressions in English make sense while others are illogical – yet people continue to repeat them…

0 Comments / 15 View / April 9, 2015

equivocation

EQUIVOCATION

EQUIVOCATION – Using one term ambiguously, or with several different meanings.  “Albert Einstein had a really sharp brain. We sometimes use it to carve a turkey.” “Children give me a headache. Aspirin makes headaches go away. If I take a…

0 Comments / 14 View / April 9, 2015

emotive language

EMOTIVE LANGUAGE

EMOTIVE LANGUAGE – Using loaded words in place of facts or evidence.  The fallacy of Emotive Language is in making a claim that is only supported by emotionally charged rhetoric. Image a debate over gun control: Abe: Why do you think…

19 Comments / 50 View / April 9, 2015

nirvana

NIRVANA

NIRVANA – Comparing an imperfect realistic idea with a perfect idealistic one.  Consider the following arguments: (1) If drugs were illegal people would get them anyway (2) If prostitution were illegal people would do it anyway (3) If abortion were…

0 Comments / 18 View / April 9, 2015

ignorance

IGNORANCE

APPEAL TO IGNORANCE – Inferring that an assertion is true simply because it has not been proven false.  With the Appeal to Ignorance, absence of evidence is confused for evidence of absence. The burden of proof should lie with the…

0 Comments / 2 View / April 9, 2015

circular reasoning

CIRCULAR REASONING

CIRCULAR REASONING – Assuming what you are trying to prove in the premise.  Circular Reasoning fails because unless the opponent already accepts the conclusion they will not accept the premise – so they will not be convinced of the conclusion….

0 Comments / 43 View / April 9, 2015

false dilemma

FALSE DILEMMA

FALSE DILEMMA – Presenting a limited set of options when at least one more possibility exists.  When only two options are presented this is known as a False Dichotomy. (Sometimes referred to as black-and-white thinking). False Dichotomy is the most common…

0 Comments / 34 View / April 9, 2015